DI – Configuring Beans

Component annotations

Spring creates beans for classes with auto component scanning features by using @Component. @Component annotation is not only one you can use for creating beans, there are others more ‘specialized’ annotations.

  • @Controller – Indicates a controller component in the presentation layer
  • @Service – Indicates a Service component in the business layer
  • @Repository – Indicates DAO component in the persistence layer

So, which one to use? It’s really doesn’t matter. Take a look at the source code one of those annotations:

public @interface Service {
    String value() default "";

You will notice that all @Repository,@Service or @Controller are annotated with @Component. So, can we use just @Component for all the components for auto scanning? Yes, you can, and Spring will auto scan all your components with @Component annotated.

It’s working fine, but not a good practice, for readability, you should always declare @Repository,@Service or @Controller for a specified layer to make your code more easier to read.

Configuration classes

Let’s assume that our Service classes (SmsService, TweetService, MailService) are part of some third party JAR and we won’t be able to annotate those with @Component. In this case we can use Java configuration classes. To make our application working again we need to create some config class where we will add our service classes to be able to be scanned by Spring.

public class MessageConfig {

    public MessageService emailService() {
        return new EmailService();

    public MessageService smsService() {
        return new SmsService();

    public MessageService tweetService() {
        return new TweetService();

Annotating a class with the @Configuration indicates that the class can be used by the Spring IoC container as a source of bean definitions. The @Bean annotation tells Spring that a method annotated with @Bean will return an object that should be registered as a bean in the Spring application context. The name of the methods become the names
of the beans by default.

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